Daniel 11: The Key to Unlock The Prophecies of Daniel

The following are my raw notes from a recent teaching on Daniel 11. Although there is much that could be added to this, I pray that it is never-the-less beneficial and edifying to you all.
Blessings, Joel

A brief exposition of Daniel 11 with an emphasis on its ultimate last days fulfillment

Joel Richardson

I. Stepping back to recognize the big picture: Revelation 12-13, 17

A. Introducing the primary characters in the larger conflict:

1. The Woman
2. The Man-Child
3. The Dragon
4. The Beast

“Now a great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a garland of twelve stars. Then being with child, she cried out in labor and in pain to give birth. And another sign appeared in heaven: behold, a great, fiery red dragon having seven heads and ten horns, and seven diadems on his heads.” —Revelation 12:1-3

B. Interpretation:

1. The Woman = Zion, Jerusalem, True Israel (Genesis 37:9; Ezekiel 16; Isaiah 66:7)
2. The Child = Jesus the Messiah (Isaiah 66:7)
3. The Dragon = Satan (Job 26:12; Psalm 74:14; 89:10; Isaiah 27:1; 51:9)
4. The Seven Headed Beast from the Sea: Satan’s Seven Pan-Historical, Pan-Biblical Pagan Empires

“Then I stood on the sand of the sea. And I saw a beast rising up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and on his horns ten crowns, and on his heads a blasphemous name… The dragon gave him his power, his throne, and great authority. And I saw one of his heads as if it had been mortally wounded, and his deadly wound was healed. And all the world marveled and followed the beast. So they worshiped the dragon who gave authority to the beast; and they worshiped the beast, saying, “Who is like the beast? Who is able to make war with him?” —Revelation 13:1-4

C. The Beast is a mirror image of the Dragon.

1. They are both red, have seven heads and tens horns.
2. Satan’s primary vessel throughout history has been these seven pagan empires.
3. This is Satan’s primary method of carrying out his religio-geopolitical will throughout the earth.

“Here is the mind which has wisdom: The seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman sits. “There are also seven kings. Five have fallen, one is, and the other has not yet come. And when he comes, he must continue a short time. “The beast that was, and is not, is himself also the eighth, and is of the seven, and is going to perdition. —Revelation 17:9-11

C. Identifying the seven Satanic, pagan, persecuting empires (Revelation 13, 17):

1. Egypt
2. Assyria
3. Babylon
4. Medo-Persia
5. Greece
6. Rome
7. Islamic Caliphate

8. While these are not the only evil empires of World history, they are the primary empires which persecuted Israel while she dwelt in her land. Many will ask why Nazi Germany is not included in this list. The Nazis may be seen as the ultimate fulfillment of the judgments that would come upon Israel while she was fully in exile, while no nation existed.

II. Daniel 11 Chapter Outline

11:3: The transition from the historical Medo-Persian Empire (11:2) to the Alexandrian Greek Empire

11:4: The death of Alexander in 323 B.C. and the division of his empire among his generals (11:4).

11:5-19: The great measure of intrigue, conflicts and battles that took place throughout Alexander’s former dominion between the Seleucid Dynasty in the North and the Ptolemaic Dynasty in the South for roughly the next 150 years.

11:20-35: Overview of the career of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the eighth King of the Seleucid North with equally strong foreshadows of Antichrist.

Note: This view concerning the dual-fulfillment of vv. 20-35 is the view of Jerome, (who claims it was the most widely held view of the Churches of his time).

11:36-39: Shift from Antiochus to Antichrist and his beliefs.

11:40-45: The final conflicts, career and end of the Antichrist.

H. After the Wars of the Diadochi: 322 to 275 BC, the Empire was primarily divided up between:

1. The Seleucid Dynasty in the North

A. Modern Nations:
B. Turkey
C. Syria
D. Lebanon
E. Israel
F. Jordan
G. Iraq
H. Iran
I. Afghanistan
J. Pakistan
K. Turkmenistan
L. Uzbekistan

2. The Ptolemaic in the South

A. Modern Nations
B. Egypt
C. Libya
D. North Sudan

I. Map of the Seleucid & Ptolemaic Dynasties (275 B.C.)

J. Antiochus IV Epiphanes as a type / pattern of the Antichrist

1. Antiochus / Antichrist:

“While returning to his land with great riches, his heart shall be moved against the holy covenant; so he shall do damage and return to his own land. For ships from Cyprus shall come against him; therefore he shall be grieved, and return in rage against the holy covenant, and do damage. So he shall return and show regard for those who forsake the holy covenant. And forces shall be mustered by him, and they shall defile the sanctuary fortress; then they shall take away the daily sacrifices, and place there the abomination of desolation. —Daniel 11:28-31

Note: In determining if this is referring strictly to Antiochus IV Epihpanes or if it infers the Antichrist as well, it is essential to recognize that Jesus (Matthew 24:15-22), referred to this, and the other Abomination of Desolations verses in Daniel (Daniel 8:11-12?; 9:27; 11;31; 12:11) and placed them in the future.

2. The Antichrist

“At the time of the end the king of the South shall attack him (King of the North /Antichrist); and the king of the North shall come against him (King of the South) like a whirlwind, with chariots, horsemen, and with many ships; and he (King of the North / Antichrist) shall enter the countries, overwhelm them, and pass through. “He shall also enter the Glorious Land, and many countries shall be overthrown; but these shall escape from his hand: Edom, Moab, and the prominent people of Ammon. He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape. “He shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt; also the Libyans and Cush shall follow at his heels. “But news from the east and the north shall trouble him; therefore he shall go out with great fury to destroy and annihilate many. “And he shall plant the tents of his palace between the seas and the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and no one will help him. —Daniel 11:40-45

K. Two-Kings or Three-Kings?

1. Debate has swirled for roughly the past one hundred (plus) years regarding whether there are two or three kings in Daniel 40-45.

2. Two Kings: (1) King of the North & (2) King of the South

3. Three Kings: (1) Willful King / Antichtist, (2) King of the North, (3) King of the South

4. Arguments for the three-king interpretation:

A. Consistent interpretation of pronouns “he” in vv. 36-43

B. It must be noted that the grammar of the passage in no way requires one to read the pronouns as all referring to one person. C.F. Keil, for instance explains the difference in the pronouns and why they are two different subjects.

C. If the two king interpretation is true, then the Antichrist is an end times leader from a neo-Seleucid (Middle Eastern) Kingdom, which conflicts with the popular (Roman / Euro-centric) interpretations of Daniel 2 (Metallic statue), Daniel 7 (Four Beasts) and Daniel 9:26 (People of the Prince to Come).

D. Thus the three king view is primarily rooted in an arguably false presupposition (European Antichrist) brought to the passage.

E. Interpreters who support the three king interpretation:

1. Sir Robert Anderson
2. H.A. Ironside
3. Arno Gaebelein
4. M.R. DeHaan
5. H.C. Leupold
6. Wm M. Smith
7. John Walvoord
8. Robert Culver
9. John C. Whitcomb
10. Leon Wood
11. Harry Bultema
12. Rodney Stortz
13. J. Dwight Pentecost
14. Renald E. Showers
15. Iain M. Duguid
16. Hal Lindsey
17. Timothy Lahaye
18. Mark Hitchcock
19. Ed Hindson
20. Arnold Fruchtenbaum
21. Ron Rhodes
22. Charles R. Swindoll
23. John Macarthur
24. Beth Moore
25. David Jeremiah

F. Arguments for the two king and against the three king interpretation:

1. The three king view violates the flow and breaks the pattern of the entire passage.

2. The three king view turns the types of enemies (King of North and South) into allies against a common enemy.

3. The three king view turns Antiochus into both a type of the Antichrist (vv. 21-35) and a type of the Antichrist’s greatest enemy (vv. 36-45)

4. The passage only emphasizes and goes into some detail concerning the invasion and defeat of the South (Egypt), but never the North. If both entities were defeated, by a third European king, why would it only emphasize the defeat of the Southern and not Northern King?

5. The invader comes from the North (which is consistent with several other eschatological, arguably antichristic prophecies. e.g., Joel 2:1-27; Isa 10:12; 30:31-33; 31:8-9; Ezekiel 38,39)

6. Because the three-king view minimizes Antiochus as a type of the Antichrist, it also forces a rejection of the clear correlation between the little horn of Daniel 8 and the little horn of Daniel 7.

7. The three king view conflicts with the universal interpretation of the early Church.

8. Despite the claims of those who argue for three-kings, the grammar of the passage does not require this view (cf., C.F. Keil’s comments &, J. Paul Tanner’s comments in JETS 35/3, Sept, 1992).

9. Survey of interpreters who hold to the two-king interpretation.

1.Hippolytus of Rome (170–235), one of the most important theologians of the second and third centuries. According to tradition, Hippolytus was a disciple of Irenaeus, a disciple of Polycarp, a disciple of John the Apostle who wrote extensively about the end times.

2. Victorinus (d. 333), an early Christian bishop and martyr. His commentary on the book of Revelation is the oldest complete commentary on Revelation in our possession.

3. Lactantius (240–320), a well-known early Christian apologist in the third and fourth centuries.

4. Ephrem the Syrian (306–373), an early Syriac deacon hymn-writer and theologians of the 4th century.

5. John Chrystostom (347—407), the highly influential Greek archbishop of Constantinople.

6. Jerome (347–420), the renowned Latin theologian and historian of the fourth and fifth centuries.

7. Theodoret of Cyrrhus (393–457), the highly influential author, theologian and bishop of Cyrrhus, Syria, in the fifth century.

8. Sir Isaac Newton (1642—1727), the renowned English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian.

9. John Gill (1697–1771), an English Baptist pastor, biblical scholar well known for his John Gill’s Exposition of the Bible (1748).

10. John Wesley (1703–1791), the well known Anglican cleric, theologian and preacher who founded along with his brother Charles Wesley, the Methodist movement.

11. Jamieson, Fausset and Brown (1871), the three co-authors of the Bible Commentary by the same name.

13. S.P. Tregelles (1813–1875), an English biblical scholar, textual critic and theologian. Tregelles is most well-known for translating Wilhelm Gesenius’ famous Hebrew Chaldee lexicon into English.

14. C.F. Keil (1813–1890), the celebrated German Hebraist and commentator who co-authored a commentary on the Old Testament with Frederick Delitzsch.

15. John Nelson Darby (1800 – 1882), an Anglo-Irish evangelist, influential figure among the Plymouth Brethren, the father of modern Dispensationalism.

16. J.E.H. Thompson, (1918), the author of the Pulpit Commentary

17. Clarence Larkin (1850–1924), an American Baptist pastor, Bible teacher and author of the classic work on dispensational eschatology, “Dispensational Truth.”

18. William L. Pettingill, (1886-1950), a leading Bible teacher of his day and Dean of the Philadelphia School of the Bible, which he co-founded with C.I. Scofield.

19. Arthur W. Pink (1886–1952), an English evangelist and biblical scholar well-known for his book “The Antichrist.”

20. G.H. Lang (1874–1958), one of the foremost dispensational premillennialist biblical scholars of his day.

21. F.F. Bruce (1910–1990), another biblical scholar of the highest calibre who needs no introduction.

22. Charles L. Feinberg (1909—1995), an American Messianic Jewish dispensationalist scholar.

23. Arthur Petrie, (1960), Director of Studies, Seattle Bible College, minister and author of several books including the Message of Daniel (1947).

24. Edward J. Young, (1907–1968), former professor of Old Testament at Westminster Theological Seminary.

25. Philip R. Newell, (1962) Bible scholar, author, Moody Bible Institute, author of Daniel, The Man Greatly Beloved and His Prophecies.

26. Geoffrey R. King, (1966), a British Bible teacher and author of Daniel: A Detailed Explanation of the Book.

27. Desmond Ford (1929—), an Australian Bible scholar and prolific author.

28. Robert D. Van Kampen (1938–1999), a businessman and the author of The Sign.

29. Gleason L. Archer Jr. (1916–2004), another well-known and deeply respected biblical scholar and theologian, known as one of the chief proponents of the doctrine of biblical inerrancy.

30. James Montgomery Boice, (1938–2000), a reformed pastor, Bible teacher, host of “The Bible Study Hour” radio broadcast and the author of Daniel, An Expositional Commentary.

31. Joyce G. Baldwin, the Anglican former principal of Trinity College in Bristol, England, and author of Tyndale’s “Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary”.

32. William H. Shea, a Seventh Day Adventist, former professor of Old Testament, at Adventist Theological Seminary and Andrews University.

33. Steven R. Miller, professor of Old Testament and Hebrew at Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary, author of the New American Commentary on the Book of Daniel.

34. Jacques B. Doukhan, Algerian born, Seventh Day Adventist scholar of Hebrew and Old Testament, and author of Daniel: The Vision of the End and Secrets of Daniel.

35. John Goldingay, professor of Old Testament at Fuller Theological Seminary, author of the Word Biblical Commentary on the Book of Daniel.

36. David Guzik, Pastor of Calvary Chapel Santa Barbara, director of Enduring Word Ministries, author of Guzik’s Commentary on the Bible (who takes a “could be” position).

37. Andrew E. Hill, professor of Old Testament studies at Wheaton College and the contributing author of the latest Expositors Bible Commentary on Daniel.

38. Robert Johns , an Australian lecturer and expert on the book of Daniel, author of The Visions of Daniel, the Hebrew Prophet.

III. Daniel 11’s ultimate implications for Last Days / Future

A. A coming neo-Seleucid Kingdom (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Iran)

B. A coming neo-Ptolemaic Kingdom (Egypt, Libya, Sudan)

C. A coming military conflict between these two regional powers.

D. A coming invasion of Israel by the future “King of the North”.

E. The fulfillment of Isaiah 19 and the conquering of Egypt:

“I will stir up Egyptian against Egyptian–brother will fight against brother, neighbor against neighbor, city against city, kingdom against kingdom. The Egyptians will lose heart, and I will bring their plans to nothing.” —Isaiah 19:2-3

“‘I will hand the Egyptians over to the power of a cruel master, and a fierce king will rule over them’, declares the Lord, the LORD Almighty.” —Isaiah 19:4

“The LORD will strike Egypt with a plague; he will strike them and heal them. They will turn to the LORD, and he will respond to their pleas and heal them.”—Isaiah 19:22

The LORD Almighty will bless them, saying, “Blessed be Egypt my people, Assyria my handiwork, and Israel my inheritance.” —Isaiah 19:25

  • David W. Lincoln
    Posted at 17:03h, 03 November

    Re: In determining of if this is referring to Antiochus IV Epihpanes or Antichrist, it is essential to recognize that Jesus (Matthew 24:15-22), referred to this, and the other Abomination of Desolations verses in Daniel (Daniel 8:11-12?; 9:27; 11;31; 12:11) and placed them in the future.

    I seem to recall some verses being applicable at more than one time.

    Correct me if I am wrong, but when King Ahab went to his last battle, it was prophesied that when the shepherd will be struck, the sheep scatter.

    This took place when King Ahab died, and it also took place in the Garden of Gethsemane several centuries later, when Jesus was seized by the palace guard, lead by Judas of Kerioth.

  • Ron Meck
    Posted at 17:04h, 03 November

    Cannot wait for the rest – Joel. These are great notes…

  • good4u
    Posted at 17:07h, 03 November


    I always check your blog regularly even when I don’t post because of your biblically sound teaching in a balanced, loving and fair analysis of prophecy. I am so thankful you graciously post your teaching notes on difficult passages of prophecy such as Daniel 11. God’s Word of prophecy is becoming unlocked as we learn more as world events unfold. We can check for fulfillment as to the nearness of King Jesus to be ready in the season of His return. You give great assistance to the LORD’s command to His believers through your ministry and blog. Many, many thanks.

  • Ron Meck
    Posted at 17:26h, 03 November

    I should add that we should pay attention to what is happening in the middle east with a very great amount of detail. For example, President Obama’s good friend is the PM of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It should be pointed out that President Assad of Syria is Erdoğan’s most hated enemy. When we look at what happened in Benghazi, Lybia we find out that Ambassador Stevens was meeting with al-Qaeda members who are a subsidiary of sorts of the Muslim Brotherhood. Stevens was running guns into Syrian rebels via al-Qeada at the behest of Turkey PM Erdoğan.

    I believe that we are witnessing the establishment of the kings of the South and of the North. I won’t go as far as to say that the “king” of the north will be Erdoğan himself, but it will certainly stem form Turkey as the head of the North. We have already witnessed Egypt forming her kingdom headed by the Muslim Brotherhood.

    As the Bible tells us, Egypt will attack the king of the North, but why? Again, if we look closely at what teh Muslim Brotherhood says, they are wanting to re-establish the Islamic Caliphate and obviously with them at the throne. Turkey is the only logical obstacle to that end. Turkey has been an advocate to Israel for quite sometime and also Turkey has the greatest economy in the middle east. These area all reasons to attack Turkey among a myriad of other reasons.

    Mark my words, that when Assad is overthrown by the Syrian “rebels” you will see Turkey take a major role in the establishment of the “new” Syrian government. Essentially it will be a puppet government of Turkey and Erdoğan.

    my $.02

  • David W. Lincoln
    Posted at 17:35h, 03 November

    http://a-mid-east-journal.blogspot.ca/2012/11/talking-turkey-and-eu.html sheds light on the situation.



  • Joel
    Posted at 21:22h, 03 November

    Thanks Good4U. Always appreciate my friends out there who I rarely see, but who I know are covering me and the family. Sincere thanks and blessings from all of us!

  • Joel
    Posted at 21:23h, 03 November

    David Lincoln,

    Per your first comment regarding double fulfillment:

    “This view concerning the dual-fulfillment of vv. 20-35 is the view of Jerome, (who claims it was the most widely held view of the Churches of his time).”

    I also hold to this view.

  • Dave Lee
    Posted at 08:32h, 04 November

    interestingly I wanted to read Victorinus’s commentary I found it online here at victohttp://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0712.htm
    thr style is not modern and the differentiation of bible verses to commentary is not too clear so takes a focussed read.
    Thanks Joel I am always expectant hoping to find somthing new to reaad on your blog!

  • Adam N.
    Posted at 00:07h, 05 November

    Great Insight!!!

  • Marcus Dorsey
    Posted at 00:09h, 05 November

    Excellent overview Joel. Thanks for sharing this.

  • madeleine7
    Posted at 14:04h, 05 November

    Many thanks for magnificent article. I feel that the Holy Spirit is guiding you to open our eyes.

  • Giles
    Posted at 18:56h, 05 November

    Im a little confused about something. If the King of the North is the Mehdi, how come he’s fighting the king of the south? I thought all Muslims are waiting for the Mehdi and are told to submit themselves to him when he appears. Would’nt the king of the south’s coalition also submit to him also?
    (or do you think it might be a case of someone claiming to be the Mehdi, and not everyone in the Middle East is convinced and therefore resist?)

  • Joel
    Posted at 21:32h, 05 November


    The Mahdi tradition is an Islamic one, not Biblical. Our guide is the Bible alone, with the Holy Spirit of course. Whether the Antichrist will ever claim to be the Mahdi, or if if he will merely be viewed by some as being the Mahdi, or if he eventually makes such claims, or he he never does, is all yet to be seen. But this is all speculation. Our view must be guided by the Word and Spirit alone.

  • Giles
    Posted at 21:47h, 05 November
  • Ron Meck
    Posted at 17:53h, 06 November

    @ Giles

    There are many who believe that the Antichrist already knows that he is the Antichrist much like Jesus knew he was the Son of God at a young age and knew what He needed to do. Remember, the Dragon (Satan) gives the Antichrist the power. The Antichrist will be a normal human being who will have the wisdom and influence to solve the problems of the entire middle east and much of the world. Now, what we must understand about the Mahdi is that the Islam believes that the Mahdi is the messiah and the salvation of Islam and that he will cause the world to convert or die. You confusion lies in the presupposition (assumption) that the king of north is known to the entire Islamic world that he is the Mahdi. However, there is nothing to support that presupposition. Also, your confusion assumes that the king of the north knows the he himself is the mahdi. It is unthinkable that any muslim would claim to be the mahdi.

    Your confusion also assumes that when the king of the south attacks the king of the north that the Antichrist/mahdi will have already been revealed. This is not the case. it is the south attacking the north that brings about the Antichrist. Hence the little horn uprooting the three horns.

    Also keep in mind that the vast majority of Muslims believe as Islam also preaches that Christ was nothing more than a prophet of Allah. So to think that the Antichrist will claim to be Christ is simply wrong and there is no Biblical support for this either. We all agree that the Antichrist will attempt to establish a one-world religion-political government. In other words a one-world religion which is also runs the government. No other religion or empire in the history of the world has ever had a religion-politcal empire except one – the Islamic Caliphate (A.K.A. Ottoman Empire).

    We use the word Antichrist because in the original Greek text ( ἀντίχριστος ) means against Christ. We get the word “against” from the “anti” therefore we end up with the name Anti-Christ or Antichrist.

    The Antichrist will come to power in an effort to solve the problems of the middle east and possibly the world. He will eventually come to a point (likely through some kind of self-exaltation) where he starts to see himself as some kind of world savior or perhaps he is called the Mahdi or Messiah much in the same way that so many in America and across the world thought of President Obama as a savior who will solve all of the world’s problems and hence the halo around his head in those images.

    Look at the many cult leaders around the world. Look at David Koresh of Waco, Texas and the Branch Davidians who thought he was Christ. He obviously didn’t start out that way. And people (his followers) obviously furthered his mindset in the fact that they believed it as well. So what I am trying to say is that the most likely scenario is that the people will call him the Mahdi and not himself making the claim at least not until after everyone starts calling him the Mahdi. Make sense?

    I hope I didn’t confuse you further.

    With Christ’s Love,

  • Chris McCue
    Posted at 06:13h, 07 November

    What is the significance of the seven diadems and ten crowns?

  • Jonas V.
    Posted at 07:23h, 07 November

    let set aside mahdi for awhile and focus ourselves on why the king of the South will conflict with the king of the north. How come both islamist region will wage war at each other when they are both bound with common islamic fundamentalism? it would be understandable if the south OR the north rise up against each other because one is secular/moderate and the other islamic. just like the shiite/sunni divide. But right now they are both islamic and shared commmon hatred towards Israel? So why? My guess is these two radical eggheads will become strong rivals and will hate each other for mid east power grab. Remember God prophesied that Ismael will be “a wild ass of a man” meaning his sword will also be against his brithers. So common with muslim people.

  • Jonas V.
    Posted at 07:24h, 07 November

    *correction* i mean ‘brothers’

  • Ron Meck
    Posted at 15:21h, 07 November


    The descendants of Ishmael will wage war with each other and everyone else. While they may share the same islamic fundamentals, they will differ in their world view. Turkey (King of the North) is somewhat friendly to Israel and is more secular. I have actually been to Turkey (Izmir and Antalya) and it is quite secular. So if you look at Egypt (king of the south) you will see that the Muslim Brotherhood is all about Sharia Law and extreme Islamic fundamentals. It will basically boil down to the two biggest kids on the block. The King of the South will be driven by ideology and the King of the North will simply respond as he should and end up conquering the southern king’s empire. Just look back throughout history and you will see that the reasons for wars can be quite childish and arbitrary.

    Your assumption about the strong rivals and fight for power are the most likely scenario. Like I said the two biggest kids on the block. But Turkey is not the sort that would simply outright attack Egypt unless of course it felt threatened, but Egypt and the Muslim Brotherhood on the other hand are the type.

  • David W. Lincoln
    Posted at 17:59h, 07 November

    The DVD and “Mid East Beast” arrived yesterday. This blog entry makes an excellent accompaniment to both of them.

  • Micah
    Posted at 18:14h, 07 November

    Joel – Thanks for all your hard work on this. We all appreciate it.

    Is it possible that the North and South conflict has already unfolded in the past 70 years in the form of regional hatred and in-fighting and that the Antichrist has already subdued 3 kings (Egypt, Libya, North Sudan) by using the Muslim Brotherhood? The north (specifically Turkey) has been strengthening its ties with these 3 southern kingdoms and now is using the Muslim Brotherhood (possibly with arms from Libya – Benghazi) to take over Syria and uniting the North.
    I remember hearing just recently that Saudi Arabia is purchasing intercontinental ballistic missiles from China because of their fear of Iran.

  • Giles
    Posted at 18:24h, 07 November

    @ Ron Meck
    No, good explanation thanks! Makes sense.

  • Joel
    Posted at 20:36h, 07 November


    I think the various descriptions within the text demand literal warfare that has yet to occur.


  • Anna
    Posted at 03:32h, 08 November

    Joel, This is great! Thanks for sharing. I am getting ready to teach some of this stuff in our class at church and was looking through your chapetr on the ethnicity of Antichrist. I did find it interesting that you argue against the ancestral-migration approach to interpeting the OT (I agree) and then basically use it to argue the Roman legions that attacked Jerusalem were Turkish and so theAnitchrsit will be from that region. Couldn’t the passage simply be referring to the people to come (who will destroy the temple at the end of the age) who will be the people of the Antichrist, and not referring to the people of 70 AD who destroyed the temple?

  • gerry
    Posted at 04:22h, 08 November

    I get the kings of the south view( libya,sudan and egypt) but as for the north here is what i think i see. from what i understand the fsa rebels in syria are a mix of al qaeda/muslim brotherhood which is at odds with secular turkey/king of north.

    Is turkey allying themselves at the moment with muslim brotherhood/fsa rebels in syria to overthrow assad(iran/hezbollah proxy) to create a power vacuum which they will swoop in to setup their own puppet govt like assad currently is to iran/hezbollah?

    This still leaves jordan and lebanon which are also influenced by hezbollah/iran.

    Apparently amman,jordan is spared and lebanon is just not strong enough in my view to be the king of the north.

    i see the king of the north being either turkey or iran.

    the gulf states also seem to be allying with turkey in the assad matter.

    at the moment i just don’t see what excuse turkey would have to attack egypt but this is just at the moment.

    could egypt break their treaty with israel and invade sinai/southern israel which causes king of north/turkey to respond and save israel somehow. israel then treats king of north as some sort of deliverer thus being deceived and lulled into trap?

    if erdo is king of north then could the false prophet be a ‘jew’ in israel?

    what do you guys think?

  • Penny
    Posted at 05:11h, 08 November

    Very impressive viewpoint. It makes sense. Thank you Joel
    Blessings to you,

  • Kurt J.
    Posted at 06:17h, 08 November

    Right on, amen Joel.

  • Joel
    Posted at 14:02h, 08 November


    I actually believe that Daniel 9:26 is likely referring to the end of the age and not 70 AD. 70 AD was roughly 40 years outside of the 69 weeks, which is what the entire prophecy is about. However, because such an overwhelmingly large portion of interpreters view it as referring to 70 AD, I show that their view, that it was not Europeans is simply wrong. It is wrong grammatically and historically. I do not argue for Turkish ethnic peoples, but simply general Middle Easterners, Syrians and Arabs specifically, which is what history so thoroughly testifies concerning.


  • Joel
    Posted at 14:03h, 08 November


    Turkey and Egypt will be at odds simply because they both would like to rule the region. Its simply two Alpha dogs duking it out. But it will be minimally some years before this is a possibility, or so I would expect.

  • gerry
    Posted at 15:44h, 08 November

    Sounds reasonable joel.

    Iran still seems like as contender for king of the north title

    maybe israel does turkey a favor in that regard

  • Joel
    Posted at 21:06h, 08 November

    The King of the North and Gog are one and the same. Persia (Iran) is merely one player, not the leader. Iran today has several problems. The people are largely ready to toss off the regime, if they had an alternative, it would happen in a minute. Their economy is in shambles. Their geographic location is simply inferior to Turkey, which possesses one of the most strategically advantageous pieces of property in the earth. Beyond this, Iran is Shi’a and would not be welcomed by too much of the Islamic world as any kind of leader. Add to all of this, the likelihood of some form of strike or war and I am persuaded that Iran will eventually be forced to come under the expanding umbrella of power of Turkey. Just a few thoughts. God knows best.

  • sam
    Posted at 19:08h, 09 November

    When the Israelis act in Syria and the “opposition” wins, a ruler will rise up. He’ll remember what the Israelis did for the Syrians and increase the land of Israel. Everyone will think that the golden age has arrived. Only later will they realize that they’ve made a covenant with death and Gog, the antichrist, reigns.

  • Trina
    Posted at 13:24h, 17 November

    I’ve been trying to discern what the wings on the beasts represent. The first beast (Babylon) had wings that were “torn off”. The third beast (Greece) had four wings. In Revelation 12, the woman (Israel/Zion) is given wings of a great eagle. What do the wings symbolize?

  • Joel
    Posted at 14:49h, 17 November

    With regard to Babylon, its hard to relate to anything historically. With the Alexandrian leopard, most understand it to be the ability to mobilize swiftly, as they did. As for the woman, it is obviously related to her ability to flee, and thus once more, the wing are tied to mobilization, or flight, as it were.

  • Mick
    Posted at 12:44h, 16 January

    Brother Joel,

    Great article that’s much appreciated.

    If I may, I’m running into some folks who keep discounting the teachings of Irenaeus and Hippolytus under their charge that they were anti-Semtic–what say you?

    Thanks & the Lord’s continued blessings upon you and your ministry.

  • Joel
    Posted at 12:52h, 16 January

    Hi Mick,

    Protestants in general are rarely very well read when it coms to the Early Church Fathers. The point in citing Irenaeus and Hippolytus is only to show what the early Premillennialists held. It is not to cite them as perfect exemplary teachers in every way. The early Church fell into error in various ways. Many folks simply disregard all ECF without even beginning to understand the reasons or at what time various errors crept in. The point is that while various anti-Semitic sentiments are found (sadly) early on in the writings of some teachers, this does not mean that their eschatology was corrupted. These two are among some of the most orthodox of the early writers concerning the end times. Not perfect, but better than most others.

  • retired don
    Posted at 21:34h, 23 May

    @ Giles
    You need to remember this as well…Sunni fight and war against the Shi’a Muslims…like the Catholics and the Protestants in Ireland (only much worse)…in the 1980’s Iran (primarily Shi’a) fought with Iraq (secondarily Sunni, but the Shi’a were suppressed from what I know). Even though Muslims believe the brainwashing they were taught…that Muslim is not allowed to kill another Muslim, they feel that “If you don’t believe the same cult as I do, you are an enemy”.
    Thus, in the the Islamic world, the North can attack the South and it would be ok.

    Thank you Joel for your ministry…love it when you come out to Colorado…

  • Edison
    Posted at 13:37h, 06 May

    What could “But news from the east and the north shall trouble him” mean. Will India and Russia attack the Antichrist kingdom? Or does it refer to east and north of Israel?

  • phillipf
    Posted at 21:54h, 21 July

    nderstanding of Dan. 11 is a result of understanding how chapter 10 fits inside of chapter 12. The vision of chapter 10 is that concerning his people in the latter days. The vision is of the great tribulation upon Daniels people. Many parts of what I will say to you, in and of themselves demand extended scriptural dissertation’s. I am prepared to provide them, but I must first find out if you ascribe any truth to this one. The vision of Daniel begins on the 24th day of the first month. This will be the exact day upon which these future events will begin to take place. This first month is the month of passover, Nisan. Daniel ate no pleasant bread for 3 full weeks. It wasn’t until the end of the 3 weeks that he began seeking to understand what he was seeing. Dan.10:1 says that he understood the thing and of the vision. 3 weeks after Nisan 24 is the 15th of Iyyar, the 2nd month. This is pesachSheni, little passover. Dan.10:12,13 says that Daniel sought for the understanding for 21 more days before the answer came from the angel. Dan. 11:1 says that the angel that is there to help him was there in the Days when Daniel was thrown into the Lions den strengthening the king protecting Daniel). This takes us to the end of the 6th of Sivan-pentecost! We have 42 days elapsing in Dan. 10. This is the sum of events that are part of Daniels vision. Notice that it was the prince of Persia that delayed the answer to Daniel (from the angel) and when he returns, his fight will be with the prince of Grecia. He states there that these 2 princes are enemies of his people. Only Michael stands with him. The time of the vision is when Michael stands up; the time trouble for his people unlike any other, Dan.12:1. THE G.T.! Dan. 12:5,6 identifies the continuity of speaker from 11:1 to 12:4-the man clothed in linen. This is clearly identified as the man with the golden girdle in Rev. 1. But he is also the same as the mighty Angel found in Rev. 10. This mighty angel utters 7 thunders that will only be understood when the 7th trumpet angel sounds. Saying “the mysteries of God are finished”. These thunders take place on a future day of Pentecost marking the end of the G.T. Pentecost is the culmination of the feast of weeks, a feast of 7 sabbaths! The 7 trumpets of Rev. Are sounded on each of these sabbaths of the feast of weeks. The 7th one marks the end of the G.T. upon Daniels people having been gathered to Jerusalem for the required mandate of the law for all Jewish males, under the auspices of having a temple to worship in. Without going into one of those long discourses, I would interject here to tell you that the 7 seals are opened on each day of the feast of unleavened bread, and each trumpet is opened on the sabbaths that follow. The correct rendering of counting the days of the omer, begins with the Sabbath that occurs within the feast of unleavened bread and counting for 7 sabbaths until the morrow after the 7th sabbath. Back to Daniels understanding the vision of 42 days. The words of chapter 11 are expounding on Daniels understanding. When the question is asked “how long till the end of these wonders” the answer was “3.5 years”. Look at Daniels response. I do not understand. If he understands the vision but does not understand the answer, what is meant? He then proceeds to ask “what shall be the end of these wonders? “. By understanding the 42 days of the vision, he wants to know what happens after that (until the end of the 3.5 years)? The answer? “My lips are sealed” concerning those things “until the TIME OF THE END”. The wonders referred to in the how long question are from when Michael stands up until the righteous being made white, awaking to everlasting life; the salvation of the elect of Israel. Nothing more is to be revealed about the events that follow the great tribulation up until “all Israel shall be saved”. John was about to write what the 7 thunders uttered but was told to wait. Adding further proof that the G.T. ends with the 7 trumpets. As another side note, the 7 bowls/vials of God’s wrath are poured out (they are not part of the time for which the “words are sealed till the time of the end”), which takes place after Israel is saved and is gathered back to Israel in fulfillment of the law when all Israel must come to Jerusalem-the feast of Tabernacles! at the end of the time, times, and a half time. I am trying to get back to the explanation of chapter 11. Chapter 11 is a detailed exposition of what leads up to and includes (the delay by the angel at the hands of the prince of Persia, to be followed by the prince of Grecia). The prince of Grecia comes on the scene at the end of the 42 days, at the end of the G.T. The explanation is understood by the coming of the 4 kings/princes of Persia. A careful examination of chapter 11 reveals that the princes of Persia are the 4 kings of the south! There is no succession or detailment of the kings of the north. This is seen by seeing that the successor king in verse 20 is of king of the south. And likewise the successor to that king of the south is the one in verse 21. The rest of the verses in ch.11:21ff explains the rise of this last (4th) king of Persia. I know that my comments are getting long, but to get to the jixt of the matter is this: the first king of persia is found in verses 5 and 6 (this is why Daniel says in verse 2 “…three kings in Persia, and the fourth shall be…”). The 2nd king of Persia is found in verses 7 through 19. The 3rd one is found in verse 20, and the 4th one is how the 4th one arises (out of flattery). Skipping a lot of details here, we do not see his “crowning” until the last 21 days of the G.T., when the Persians make him their king, via flattery, thereby obtaining the kingdom in an un-Persian like manner, not “honorably”. 21 days later, at the end of the G.T, he then becomes the new king of Grecia, the 8th kingdom of Rev. 17. The 2nd king of Persia is in power right now. If what I have said here does not arouse a response from you, I will move on and find someone else who will listen.
    I could write on and on, but I will stop here.
    Blessings to all who keepeth the sayings and the prophecy of HIS BOOK!

  • Josh
    Posted at 19:10h, 25 July

    I have s friend who is a preterist. What are your top 3-4 reasons why Preterism is inaccurate?

  • Joel
    Posted at 00:44h, 26 July


    Daniel 11-12, and Matthew 24

  • Terry Turner
    Posted at 21:21h, 16 February

    Please do you have any notes on Daniel chapters 10 and 12? I have your excellent notes on chapter 11. We will be studying these chapters tomorrow morning ( Wednesday 11 a.m. Central Europena Time) and after looking at your comentary on chapter 8 last week I saw how very wrong we had gotten it!


  • Joel
    Posted at 00:15h, 17 February

    My apologies, but for now, I do not have anything more substantial.

  • Terry Turner,
    Posted at 08:32h, 17 February

    Ok… thanks anyway. Shalom.

  • Sebastien
    Posted at 06:47h, 24 April

    Brother Joel,

    It is wonderful to read your site and interpretations you present regarding the Islamic antichrist.

    My question to you however is divided into 3 segments, and would be most grateful for any input you may give.

    (1) The antichrist’s kingdom and the ‘mark of the beast’ would therefore then be ‘regional’ and confined only to a region ? Would far off nations like Uruguay, Argentina, Hawaii, Samoa/Pacific Islands, New Zealand be safe places and outside the control of the Antichrist? So there will be pockets/places/nations of the earth where Christians will be safer in the end times?

    (2) Who are the biblical Kings of the East? Is it Pagan China/India/Asian nations that wage war against the Muslim Antichrist?

    (3) Will the book of Revelations judgements hit the entire planet and Christians will go through it?

    Warm regards

  • Joel
    Posted at 11:56h, 24 April

    Of course it will look different in different parts of the world. However, one should not assume “safe places” but should prepare for persecution. The question of global versus regional is a difficult matter due to the language of the various prophecies. We must be prepared for the worst. No doubt.

    Posted at 17:19h, 21 May

    please can you relate daniel 11 clearly with our times because even in our times antichrist must appear before Christ comes back. thanks for the revelation. God bless you.

  • Chris Mourey
    Posted at 06:52h, 24 June

    Are you Seventh Day Adventist? If so, do you believe Ellen G. White is a prophet? If so, why does your interpretation of end time events greatly differ from the “Great Controversy” ?

  • Joel
    Posted at 07:40h, 24 June


    I am not, nor ever have been a Seventh Day Adventist, and certainly do not believe Ellen G. White was a prophetess. In fact, I would call her a false prophet.

  • gabby
    Posted at 21:16h, 06 July

    Edrogan’s name is almost an anagram for the word “dragon”

  • Jeffery Jones
    Posted at 02:22h, 09 November

    I have some information relating to yesterday’s post by MICAH, who asks: “Is it possible that the North and South conflict has already unfolded in the past 70 years . . . ?” Your response, that the text of Daniel chapter 11 “demand literal warfare that has yet to occur” indicates that maybe you should expand your definition of “King of the North” and “King of the South” to include nations around the world who are allied with, for example, Turkey and Egypt. Specifically, during WW1, Germany would also be considered “King of the North” because of it’s alliance with The Ottoman Empire.

    It may help to assume here, that a scripture giving a blow by blow description of the “literal warfare” leading up to the Second Coming, would at least mention the two world wars. The occurrence of WW2 a generation later may be a fulfillment of verse 10: “Now as for his sons, they will gather together a crowd of large military forces”, which certainly describes 1939 Germany. As Daniel predicted, the South won both of these wars.

    As for the period asked about by Micah: 70 years ago; we (United States, England, etc. as allies of Egypt) had accepted the surrender of the king of the north after WW2, and were setting up the United Nations. It looks to me as if verse 12 refers to this point in time: “He will cause tens of thousands to fall, but he will not use his strong position” (to demand territory, tribute, and war reparations). Verses 13 and 14 indicate a passage of years, during which “There will be many who stand up against the king of the south, which now include the United Kingdom and The United States.. Sure enough – within the past 70 years the US has had to deal with a “cold war” with the USSR; Literal warfare in Korea, Vietnam, Iraq (twice), and Afghanistan; as well as Saudi Arabia standing up against us economically (as leader of OPEC), All this sets the stage for “And the sons of the robbers belonging to your people (the followers of Mohammad) will be carried along to try to make a vision (attributed to Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, among others) come true.” Trying to make that vision come true explains all of the following: 1) The 1979 seizure of the Mosque at Mecca, 2) The Iranian revolution (also of 1979) ,The expulsion of the Soviet Union from Afghanistan subsequent to the 1979 invasion, and 4) The rise of al-Qaeda, including the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the London train bombing (among other events).

    There are many details of verses 15 through 19 recorded by Daniel that indicate he saw (in a vision) actions of the Taliban, al-Qaeda, and Osama bin Laden. Imagine, if you will, how Daniel would express the events of 9-11 that he witnessed: Jet airliners (with someone at the controls) slamming into two humongous towers that collapsed shortly afterward. Lacking the word for “airplane”, he said, “Cast up a mount” (King James version), or “Throw up a siege rampart” (New World translation). “As regards . . . womankind (he will) bring her to ruin. And she will not stand, and she will not continue to be his” (verse 17) is Daniels way of describing the relationship (revealed to him) between the men of the Taliban and their wives. “The Isles” of verse 18 could refer to the London train bombings. If so, Tony Blair would be “a commander”. Who else but bin Laden could be described thus: “And he will turn his face back to the fortresses of his own land, and he will certainly stumble and fall, and he will not be found.” (verse 19)?

    Verse 20 – “And there must stand up in his position . . . ” would naturally refer to the next head of Afghanistan. That would be Hamid Karsai, who was appointed interim leader three months and eleven days after 9-11. “The exactor” would be Ashraf Ghani, who returned to Afghanistan to become the ‘Finance Minister’ after 24 years as a professor at Johns Hopkins, and a project organizer for the World Bank. In 2003, Ghani was recognized as the best finance minister of Asia by ‘Emerging Markets’ according to Wikipedia. ” . . . and in a few days he will be broken, but not in anger nor in warfare.” is Daniels way of noting that Karsai retired in 2014 after “ruling” Afghanistan for 4,400 days.

    The next king of the north, one who “must stand up in his position” would be someone who comes on the scene in 2014 and be described as a “vile person”. That rules out Ghani (the well respected “exactor”), who became president of Afghanistan when Karsai retired Also emerging in 2014 was ISIS, which declared itself a worldwide caliphate in June 2014. Based upon the number of civilians beheaded, that group (and their leader) qualify to be called “a vile person” for sure. Invading Mosul (with the purported help of the Iraqi army) and looting banks for almost half a billion dollars, thereby becoming the worlds richest terrorist group, fulfilled verse 24. “King of the South” at this point would include not only Saudi Arabia (a US ally) but also the puppet government in Iraq.

    This brings us to the present moment in the blow by blow end time prophecy as described by Daniel in chapter 11: verse 28. Coming soon: The Ships of Kittim (verse 30)!

    I may not be correct in some of the above, I am humbly submitting as food for thought.

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